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Russia’s at war with Ukraine. Here’s how we got here

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Demonstrators wave Ukrainian flags as they gather in central Kyiv, Ukraine’s capital, on Oct. 6, 2019, to protest against broader autonomy for separatist territories. Protesters chanted, “No to surrender!” and some held placards critical of President Volodymyr Zelenskyy. Police said the crowd swelled to around 10,000 people. Genya Savilov/AFP via Getty Images hide caption

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Why Luhansk and Donetsk are key to understanding the latest escalation in Ukraine

But along the country’s eastern border with Russia, separatists backed by Moscow took control of two regions in 2014. Violence in eastern Ukraine has killed more than 14,000 people in the years since, according to International Crisis Group cinemaboxhd.orgia’s recognition of the two regions’ independence set the stage for moving its troops into Ukraine.

Read more: Ukraine 90s

Read on to understand how Ukraine came to where it is today.

The 1990s: Independence from the Soviet Union

1989 and 1990

Anti-communist protests sweep central and Eastern Europe, starting in Poland and spreading throughout the Soviet bloc. In Ukraine, January 1990 sees more than 400,000 people joining hands in a human chain stretching some 400 miles from the western city of Ivano-Frankivsk to Kyiv, the capital, in the north-central part of Ukraine. Many wave the blue and yellow Ukrainian flag that had been banned under Soviet rule.

Why Luhansk and Donetsk are key to understanding the latest escalation in Ukraine

Representatives of the Ukrainian Catholic Church protest the visit of Russian Orthodox Church Patriarch Alexi II to Kyiv on Oct. 29, 1990. Efrem Lucatsky/AP hide caption

toggle caption Efrem Lucatsky/AP

July 16, 1990

The Rada, the new Ukrainian parliament formed out of the previous Soviet legislature,votes to declare independence from the Soviet Union. Authorities recall Ukrainian soldiers from other parts of the USSR and vote to shut down the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in northern Ukraine.

1991

Following a failed coup in Moscow, the Ukrainian parliament declares independence a second time on Aug. 24, a date that is still celebrated as Ukraine’s official Independence Day. In December, Ukrainians vote to make their independence official when they approve the declaration by a landslide 92% of votes in favor. The Soviet Union officially dissolves on Dec. 26.

Ukrainians demonstrate in front of the Communist Party’s Central Committee headquarters in Kyiv on Aug. 25, 1991, the day after Ukraine declared its independence from the Soviet Union. Anatoly Sapronenko/AFP via Getty Images hide caption

toggle caption Anatoly Sapronenko/AFP via Getty Images

1992

As NATO allies contemplate adding central and EasternEuropean members for the first time, Ukraine formally establishes relations with the alliance, though it does not join. NATO’s secretary-general visits Kyiv, and Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk visits NATO headquarters in Brussels.

December 1994

After the Soviet Union’s collapse, Ukraine is left with the world’s third-largest nuclear stockpile. In a treaty called the Budapest Memorandum, Ukraine agrees to trade away its intercontinental ballistic missiles, warheads and other nuclear infrastructure in exchange for guarantees that the three other treaty signatories — the U.S., the U.K. and Russia — will “respect the independence and sovereignty and the existing borders of Ukraine.”

President Bill Clinton (from left), Russian President Boris Yeltsin and Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk join hands in 1994 after signing a nuclear disarmament agreement. Under the agreement, Ukraine, the world’s third-largest nuclear power at the time, said it would turn all its strategic nuclear arms over to Russia for destruction. Sergei Supinsky/AFP via Getty Images hide caption

toggle caption Sergei Supinsky/AFP via Getty Images

1994 to 2004

In 10 years as president, Leonid Kuchma helps transition Ukraine from a Soviet republic to a capitalist society, privatizing businesses and working to improve international economic opportunities. But in 2000, his presidency is rocked by scandal over audio recordings that reveal he ordered the death of a journalist. He remains in power about four more years.

The 2000s: Wavering between the West and Russia

2004

The presidential election pits Kuchma’s incumbent party — led by his hand-picked successor, Viktor Yanukovych, and supported by Russian President Vladimir Putin — against a popular pro-democracy opposition leader, Viktor Yushchenko.

In the final months of the campaign, Yushchenko falls mysteriously ill, is disfigured and is confirmed by doctors to have been poisoned.

Yanukovych wins the election amid accusations of rigging. Massive protests follow, and the public outcry becomes known as the Orange Revolution. After a third vote, Yushchenko prevails.

Viktor Yushchenko, the pro-Western hero of the Orange Revolution, became the third president of an independent Ukraine. Yulia Tymoshenko (left) became prime minister. Maxim Marmur/AFP via Getty Images hide caption

toggle caption Maxim Marmur/AFP via Getty Images

January 2005

Yushchenko takes office as president, with Yulia Tymoshenko as prime minister.

2008

Following efforts by Yushchenko and Tymoshenko to bring Ukraine into NATO, the twoformally request in January that Ukraine be granted a “membership action plan,” the first step in the process of joining the alliance.

U.S. President George W. Bush supports Ukraine’s membership, but France and Germany oppose it after Russia voices displeasure.

In April, NATO responds with a compromise: It promises that Ukraine will one day be a member of the alliance but does not put it on a specific path for how to do so.

An employee of the state-owned Russian natural gas company Gazprom works at the central control room of the company’s headquarters in Moscow on Jan. 14, 2009. Yuri Kadobnov/AFP via Getty Images hide caption

toggle caption Yuri Kadobnov/AFP via Getty Images

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January 2009

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On Jan. 1, Gazprom, the state-owned Russian gas company, suddenly stops pumping natural gas to Ukraine, following months of politically fraught negotiations over gas prices. Because Eastern and central European countries rely on pipelines through Ukraine to receive gas imports from Russia, the gas crisis quickly spreads beyond Ukraine’s borders.

Under international pressure to resolve the crisis, Tymoshenko negotiates a new deal with Putin, and gas flows resume on Jan. 20. Much of Europe still relies on Russian gas today.

2010

Yanukovych is elected president in February. He says Ukraine should be a “neutral state,” cooperating with both Russia and Western alliances like NATO.

2011

Ukrainian prosecutors open criminal investigations into Tymoshenko, alleging corruption and misuse of government resources. In October, a court finds her guilty of “abuse of power” during the 2009 negotiations with Russia over the gas crisis and sentences her to seven years in prison, prompting concerns in the West that Ukrainian leaders are persecuting political opponents.

Anti-government protesters guard the perimeter of Independence Square, known as Maidan, in Kyiv on Feb. 19, 2014. Protesters were calling for the ouster of President Viktor Yanukovych over corruption and an abandoned trade agreement with the European Union. Brendan Hoffman/Getty Images hide caption

toggle caption Brendan Hoffman/Getty Images

2014: The Maidan revolution and Crimea’s annexation

November 2013 through February 2014

Just days before it is to be signed, Yanukovych announces that he will refuse to sign an association agreement with the European Union to bring Ukraine into a free trade agreement. He cites pressure from Russia as a reason for his decision.

The announcement sparks huge protests across Ukraine — the largest since the Orange Revolution — calling for Yanukovych to resign. Protesters begin camping out in Kyiv’s Maidan, also known as Independence Square, and occupy government buildings, including Kyiv’s city hall and the justice ministry.

In late February, violence between police and protesters leaves more than 100 dead in the single bloodiest week in Ukraine’s post-Soviet history.

Ahead of a scheduled impeachment vote on Feb. 22, Yanukovych flees, eventually arriving in Russia. Ukraine’s parliament votes unanimously to remove Yanukovych and install an interim government, which announces it will sign the EU agreement and votes to free Tymoshenko from prison.

The new government charges Yanukovych with mass murder of the Maidan protesters and issues a warrant for his arrest.

Russia declares that the change in Ukraine’s government is an illegal coup. Almost immediately, armed men appear at checkpoints and facilities in the Crimean Peninsula. Putin at first denies they are Russian soldiers but later admits it.

Anti-government protesters clash with police in Kyiv’s Maidan despite a truce agreed between the Ukrainian president and opposition leaders on Feb. 20, 2014. Jeff J Mitchell/Getty Images hide caption

toggle caption Jeff J Mitchell/Getty Images

March 2014

With Russian troops in control of the peninsula, the Crimean parliament votes to secede from Ukraine and join Russia. A public referendum follows, with 97% of voters favoring secession, although the results are disputed.

Putin finalizes the Russian annexation of Crimea in a March 18 announcement to Russia’s parliament. In response, the U.S. and allies in Europe impose sanctions on Russia. They have never recognized Russia’s annexation. It remains the only time that a European nation has used military force to seize the territory of another since World War II.

April 2014

With some 40,000 Russian troops gathered on Ukraine’s eastern border, violence breaks out in the eastern Ukrainian region of Donbas — violence that continues to this day. Russian-supported separatist forces storm government buildings in two eastern regions, Donetsk and Luhansk. They declare independence from Ukraine as the Donetsk People’s Republic and Luhansk People’s Republic, though they remain internationally recognized as part of Ukraine. Russia denies that its troops are on Ukrainian soil, but Ukrainian officials insist otherwise.

A man holds a Crimean flag in front of the Crimean parliament building in Simferopol, Ukraine, on March 17, 2014. People in Crimea overwhelmingly voted to secede from Ukraine during a referendum vote on March 16, 2014, and the Crimean parliament declared independence and formally asked Russia to annex Crimea. Dan Kitwood/Getty Images hide caption

toggle caption Dan Kitwood/Getty Images

May 2014

The pro-West politician Petro Poroshenko, a former government minister and head of the Council of the National Bank of Ukraine, is elected Ukraine’s president. He promotes reform, including measures to address corruption and lessen Ukraine’s dependence on Russia for energy and financial support.

Sept. 5, 2014

Representatives from Russia, Ukraine, France and Germany meet in Belarus to attempt to negotiate an end to the violence in the Donbas. They sign the first Minsk agreement, a deal between Ukraine and Russia to quiet the violence under a fragile cease-fire. The cease-fire soon breaks, and fighting continues into the new year.

Ukrainian troops train with small arms on March 13, 2015, outside Mariupol, Ukraine. The Minsk II cease-fire agreement, which continued to hold despite being violated more than 1,000 times, was nearing the one-month mark. Andrew Burton/Getty Images hide caption

toggle caption Andrew Burton/Getty Images

2015 through 2020: Russia looms

February 2015

The Minsk group meets again in Belarus to find a more successful agreement to end the fighting in eastern Ukraine, resulting in the Minsk II agreement. It too has been unsuccessful at ending the violence. From 2014 through today, more than 14,000 people have been killed, tens of thousands wounded and more than a million displaced.

Together, the annexation of Crimea and the Russian-backed violence in the east have pushed Ukrainian public sentiment toward the West, strengthening interest in joining NATO and the EU.

2016 and 2017

As fighting in the Donbas continues, Russia repeatedly strikes at Ukraine in a series of cyberattacks, including a 2016 attack on Kyiv’s power grid that causes a major blackout. In 2017, a large-scale assault affects key Ukrainian infrastructure, including the National Bank of Ukraine and the country’s electrical grid. (Cyberattacks from Russia have continued through the present; the latest major attack targeted government websites in January 2022.)

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Watch more: Ukraine: A Prize Neither Russia Nor the West Can Afford to Win

Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy greets lawmakers during the solemn opening and first sitting of the new parliament, the Verkhovna Rada, in Kyiv on Aug. 29, 2019. Sergei Supinsky/AFP via Getty Images hide caption

toggle caption Sergei Supinsky/AFP via Getty Images

2019

In April, comedian and actor Volodymyr Zelenskyy is elected president in a landslide rebuke of Poroshenko and the status quo, which includes a stagnating economy and the conflict with Russia.

During his campaign, Zelenskyy vowed to make peace with Russia and end the war in the Donbas.

His early efforts to reach a solution to the violence are slowed by U.S. President Donald Trump, who briefly blocks U.S. military aid to Ukraine and suggests to Zelenskyy that he should instead work with Putin to resolve the crisis.

In a phone call with Trump in July 2019, Zelenskyy requests a visit to the White House to meet with Trump about U.S. backing of Ukraine’s efforts to push off Russia. Trump asks Zelenskyy for “a favor”: an investigation into energy company Burisma and the Bidens. A White House whistleblower complains, leading to Trump’s first impeachment in December 2019.

Several U.S. officials later testify that Zelenskyy was close to announcing such an investigation, though he ultimately demurs, saying Ukrainians are “tired” of Burisma.

Russian troops take part in drills at the Kadamovskiy firing range in the Rostov region of southern Russia on Dec. 14, 2021. AP hide caption

toggle caption AP

2021: The crisis escalates

April

Russia sends about 100,000 troops to Ukraine’s borders, ostensibly for military exercises. Although few analysts believe an invasion is imminent, Zelenskyy urges NATO leadership to put Ukraine on a timeline for membership. Later that month, Russia says it will withdraw the troops, but tens of thousands remain.

August

Two years after his entanglement with Trump, Zelenskyy visits the White House to meet with President Biden. Biden emphasizes that the U.S. is committed to “Ukraine’s sovereignty and territorial integrity in the face of Russian aggression” but repeats that Ukraine has not yet met the conditions necessary to join NATO.

November

Russia renews its troop presence near the Ukraine-Russia border, alarming U.S. intelligence officials, who travel to Brussels to brief NATO allies on the situation. “We’re not sure exactly what Mr. Putin is up to, but these movements certainly have our attention,” says U.S. Defense Secretary Lloyd Austin.

Russian troops take part in drills at the Kadamovskiy firing range in the Rostov region of southern Russia on Dec. 14, 2021. AP hide caption

toggle caption AP

December

Biden, speaking with Putin on a phone call, urges Russia not to invade Ukraine, warning of “real costs” if Russia does so.

Putin issues a contentious set of security demands. Among them, he asks NATO to permanently bar Ukraine from membership and withdraw forces stationed in countries that joined the alliance after 1997, including Romania and Balkan countries. Putin also demands a written response from the U.S. and NATO.

2022: Russia moves in

January

Leaders and diplomats from the U.S., Russia and European countries meet repeatedly to avert a crisis. In early January, Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Sergei Ryabkov tells U.S. officials that Russia has no plans to invade Ukraine.

The State Department orders the families of embassy staff to leave Ukraine on Jan. 23. NATO places forces on standby the next day, including the U.S. ordering 8,500 troops in the United States to be ready to deploy.

Representatives from the U.S. and NATO deliver their written responses to Putin’s demands on Jan. 26. In the responses, officials say they cannot bar Ukraine from joining NATO, but they signal a willingness to negotiate over smaller issues like arms control.

French President Emmanuel Macron (right) meets with Russian President Vladimir Putin in Moscow on Feb. 7, 2022, for talks in an effort to find common ground on Ukraine and NATO. Sputnik/AFP via Getty Images hide caption

toggle caption Sputnik/AFP via Getty Images

February

Diplomatic efforts pick up pace across Europe. French President Emmanuel Macron and German Chancellor Olaf Scholz travel between Moscow and Kyiv. Biden orders the movement of 1,000 U.S. troops from Germany to Romania and the deployment of 2,000 additional U.S. troops to Poland and Germany.

Russia and Belarus begin joint military exercises on Feb. 10, with some 30,000 Russian troops stationed in the country along Ukraine’s northern border.

The U.S. and the U.K. urge their citizens to leave Ukraine on Feb. 11. Biden announces the deployment of another 2,000 troops from the U.S. to Poland.

In mid-February, the fighting escalates between Russian-backed separatists and Ukrainian forces in the two eastern regions of Donetsk and Luhansk. Separatist leaders call for evacuations. “In our view, what is happening in Donbas today is, in fact, genocide,” says Putin on Feb. 15 — a false claim that Western officials say Putin is using to create a pretext for an invasion.

Russia continues to build its troop presence on its border with Ukraine. Estimates range from 150,000 to 190,000 troops. U.S. officials, including Biden, increase the urgency of their warnings, saying that Russia has decided to invade.

On Feb. 21, Putin formally recognizes the independence of the Donetsk People’s Republic and the Luhansk People’s Republic — including territory claimed by separatists but controlled by the Ukrainian armed forces. He orders Russia’s military to deploy troops there under the guise of a “peacekeeping” mission.

In response, Biden declares the move “the beginning of a Russian invasion.” Together, the U.S., the U.K. and the European Union enact a broad set of sanctions targeting Russian banks and oligarchs.

On Feb. 24, Russian forces launch a devastating assault on Ukrainian territory — the largest such military operation in Europe since the end of World War II. Missiles rain down on Ukraine’s cities and columns of Russian troops from neighboring Belarus and from Russian-held Crimea reportedly begin streaming into the countryside. Ukrainian forces reportedly try to hold back the Russian advance on several fronts.

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