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An important part of being fluent in R is having a good working vocabulary. Below, I have listed the functions that I believe constitute such a vocabulary. You don’t need to be intimately familiar with the details of every function, but you should at least be aware that they all exist. If there are functions in this list that you’ve never heard of, I strongly recommend that you read their documentation.
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I came up with this list by looking through all the functions in the base, stats, and utils packages, and extracting those that I think are most useful. The list also includes a few pointers to particularly important functions in other packages, and some of the more important options().
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# The first functions to learn ? str # Important operators and assignment %in%, match =, <-, <<- $, [, [[, head, tail, subset with assign, get # Comparison cinemaboxhd.orgl, identical !=, ==, >, >=, <, <= is.na, cinemaboxhd.org is.finite # Basic math *, +, -, /, ^, %%, %/% abs, sign acos, asin, atan, atan2 sin, cos, tan ceiling, floor, round, trunc, signif exp, log, log10, log2, sqrt max, min, prod, sum cummax, cummin, cumprod, cumsum, diff pmax, pmin range mean, median, cor, sd, var rle # Functions to do with functions function missing on.exit return, invisible # Logical & sets &, |, !, xor all, any intersect, union, setdiff, setequal which # Vectors and matrices c, matrix # automatic coercion rules character > numeric > logical length, dim, ncol, nrow cbind, rbind names, colnames, rownames t diag sweep as.matrix, cinemaboxhd.orgix # Making vectors c rep, rep_len seq, seq_len, seq_along rev sample choose, factorial, combn (is/as).(character/numeric/logical/…) # Lists & cinemaboxhd.orges list, unlist cinemaboxhd.orge, cinemaboxhd.org split cinemaboxhd.org # Control flow if, &&, || (short circuiting) for, while next, break switch ifelse # Apply & friends lapply, sapply, vapply apply tapply replicate
Common data structures
# Date time ISOdate, ISOdatetime, strftime, strptime, date difftime julian, months, quarters, weekdays library(lubridate) # Character manipulation grep, agrep gsub strsplit chartr nchar tolower, toupper substr paste trimws library(stringr) # Factors factor, levels, nlevels reorder, relevel cut, findInterval interaction options(stringsAsFactors = FALSE) # Array manipulation array dim dimnames aperm library(abind)
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# Ordering and tabulating duplicated, unique merge order, rank, quantile sort table, ftable # Linear models fitted, predict, resid, rstandard lm, glm hat, cinemaboxhd.orgures logLik, df, deviance formula, ~, I anova, coef, confint, vcov contrasts # Miscellaneous tests apropos(“\.test$”) # Random variables (q, p, d, r) * (beta, binom, cauchy, chisq, exp, f, gamma, geom, hyper, lnorm, logis, multinom, nbinom, norm, pois, signrank, t, unif, weibull, wilcox, birthday, tukey) # Matrix algebra crossprod, tcrossprod eigen, qr, svd %*%, %o%, outer rcond solve
Working with R
# Workspace ls, exists, rm getwd, setwd q source cinemaboxhd.orgages, library, require # Help help, ? cinemaboxhd.orgch apropos RSiteSearch citation demo example vignette # Debugging traceback browser recover options(error = ) stop, warning, message tryCatch, try
# Output print, cat message, warning dput format sink, cinemaboxhd.orgut sprintf # Reading and writing data data cinemaboxhd.orgds cinemaboxhd.org, cinemaboxhd.org cinemaboxhd.orgm, cinemaboxhd.org cinemaboxhd.org readLines, writeLines readRDS, saveRDS load, save library(foreign) # Files and directories dir basename, dirname, tools::file_ext cinemaboxhd.org cinemaboxhd.orgnd, normalizePath cinemaboxhd.orgse cinemaboxhd.org, cinemaboxhd.orgte, cinemaboxhd.orgve, cinemaboxhd.orgme, cinemaboxhd.orgte cinemaboxhd.orgts, cinemaboxhd.org tempdir, tempfile cinemaboxhd.org, library(downloader)