IELTS Reading Exam

(Update 2022) CAMBRIDGE IELTS 5 READING TEST 2 ANSWERS – Free Lesson

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Table of Contents

Passage 1: BAKELITE – THE BIRTH OF MODERN PLASTICS

Questions 1-3: Choose ONE WORD only from the passage for each answer.

1. Some plastics behave in a similar way to….in that they melt under heat and can be moulded into new forms.

Keywords: similar, melt, moulded

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Read more: Ielts 5 reading test 2 answers 40

In paragraph 2, the writer says that: “Some are „thermoplastic‟, which means that, like candlewax, they melt when heated and can be reshaped”. This means that some plastics,such as thermoplastics, have similar characteristics to candlewax: they melt under heat (melt when heated) and can be moulded (reshaped).

+ a similar way to = like

+ moulded = reshaped

=>ANSWER: candlewax

2. Bakelite was unique because it was the first material to be both entirely…..in origin, and thermosetting.

Keywords: unique, first, entirely

At the end of paragraph 2, the writer states that “Bakelite had the distinction of being the first totally synthetic thermosetting plastic”

+ to be unique = to have the distinction of

+ entirely = totally

=>ANSWER: synthetic

3. There were several reasons for the research into plastics in the nineteenth century, among them the great advances that had been made in the field of… and the search for alternatives to natural resources like ivory.

Keywords: nineteenth century, great advances, field, ivory

In paragraph 3, the writer reports that: “The impetus behind the development of these early plastics was generated by a number of factors- immense technological progress in the domain of chemistry, coupled with wider cultural changes, and the pragmatic need to find acceptable substitutes for dwindling supplies of „luxury‟ materials such as tortoise shell and ivory.”

+ several reasons for = generated by a number of factors

+ great advances = immense technological progress

+ field = domain

+ search = find

+ alternatives = substitutes

=>ANSWER: chemistry

Questions 4-8: Complete the flow chart. Choose ONE WORD from the passage for each answer

4. Novalak

Keywords: phenol, formaldehyde, combine under vacuum, resin

In paragraph 5, the writer says that ” The original patent outlined a three-stage process, in which phenol and formaldehyde (from wood or coal) were initially combined under vacuum inside a large egg- shaped kettle. The result was a resin known as Novalak”

5. Fillers

Keywords: e.g, cotton, asbestos

In paragraph 5, the writer says that “Other substances were then introduced: including fillers, such as wood flour, asbestos or cotton, which increase strength and moisture resistance.” e.g (for example) = such as

6. Hexa

Keywords: ammonia, formaldehyde

In paragraph 5, the writer refers to: “catalysts (substances to speed up the reaction between two chemicals without joining to either) and hexa, a compound of ammonia and formaldehyde which supplied the additional formaldehyde necessary to form a thermosetting resin.”We understand that hexa is a compound of ammonia and formaldehyde, so two arrows of ammonia and formaldehyde in the chart make up hexa.

7. Raw

Keywords: cool, hardened, break up, grind, Bakelite, stage two resin

In paragraph 5, the writer says: “This resin was then left to cool and harden, and ground up a second time. The resulting granular powder was raw Bakelite, ready to be made into a vast range of manufactured objects.”

+ stage two resin = a second time

+ grind = ground (past simple tense)

8. Pressure

Keywords: pour, mould, intense heat

In paragraph 5, the writer states that: ” In the last stage, the heated Bakelite was poured into a hollow mould of the required shape and subjected to extreme heat and pressure, thereby „setting‟ its forms for life”. We realise that in paragraph 5, the writer describes the moulding process by using the passive voice, whereas, questions in the flow chart are inthe active voice. For example:

+ pour =>poured

+ apply intense heat =>subjected to extreme heat

+ intense = extreme

Questions 9-10: Choose two letters, A-E

Which two of the following factors influencing the design of Bakelite objects are mentioned in the text?

Questions 9-10. ANSWER: B, C

A. the function which the object would serve

Keywords: function, object, serve

In the first sentence of paragraph 6, the writer states that “The design of Bakelite objects, everything from earrings to television sets, was governed to a large extent by the technical requirements of the moulding process”. This is the topic sentence of the paragraph, indicating that the design of Bakelite objects are influenced by the technical requirements of the moulding process, whatever the object‟s functions are (earrings or televisions). So option A is false.

B. the ease with which the resin could fill the mould

Keywords: ease, fill, mould

In paragraph 6, the writer says that “Moulds had to be carefully designed so that the molten Bakelite would flow evenly and completely into the mould. Sharp corners proved impractical and were thus avoided, giving rise to the smooth, “streamlined” style popular in the 1930s.

+ fill = flow completely into evenly, completely, smooth, streamlined indicate the ease with which the resin can fill the mould.

So the answer is B

C . The facility with which the object could be removed from the mould

Keywords: removed, mould

In paragraph 6, the writer states that ” The object could not be designed so that it was locked into the mould and therefore difficult to extract”, therefore “objects should taper towards the deepest part of the mould, and if necessary the product was moulded in separate pieces” – so that the objects will be easily removed from the mould.

+ taper toward: progressively narrow or reduce in thickness towards one end

+ remove = extract

So the answer is C

D. the limitations of the materials used to manufacture the mould

Keywords: limitations, materials, manufacture

Actually the writer only mentions the limitations of shapes/forms of the mould: “The thickness of the walls of the mould was also crucial: thick walls took longer to cool and harden, a factor which had to be considered by the designer in order to make the most efficient use of machines… Sharp corners proved impractical and were thus avoided”. He does not mention the limitations of the materials used to make the moulds crucial: very important and of great influence on the design of products.

=>D is false

E. the fashionable styles of the period

Keywords: fashionable styles, period

In paragraph 6, the writer says that: “Sharp corners proved impractical and were thus avoided, giving rise to the smooth, „streamlined‟ style popular in the 1930s”. This means that the old styles in the 1930s are still in use and practical, not the fashionable styles.

=>E is false

Questions 11-13: TRUE/FALSE/NOT GIVEN

11. Modern-day plastic preparation is based on the same principles as that patented in 1907

Keywords: modern-day, preparation, patented, 1907

At the end of paragraph 4, the writer states that: “On 13 July 1907, Baekeland took out his famous patent describing this preparation, the essential features of which are still in use today”.So, the statement is true.

+ principles = essential features

=>ANSWER: TRUE

12. Bakelite was immediately welcomed as a practical and versatile material.

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Keywords: immediately, welcomed

In paragraph 7, the writer indicates that “Baekeland’s invention, although treated with disdain in its early years, went on to enjoy an unparalleled popularity which lasted throughout the first half of the twentieth century. It became…the material of a thousand uses.”So at first, Bakelite was not welcomed by the community.

+ immediately = early years

+ welcomed>< treated with disdain

+ practical and versatile material = material of a thousand uses

=>ANSWER: FALSE

13. Bakelite was only available in a limited range of colours.

Keywords: only available, limited, colours

In the last paragraph, the writer says that “consumers everywhere relishedits dazzling array of shades, delighted that they were now, at last, no longer restricted to the wood tones and drab browns of the pre- plastic era.”

+ limited = restricted

=>ANSWER: FALSE

CAMBRIDGE IELTS 5 – TEST 2 – PASSAGE 1 KEYWORDS TABLE

Passage 2: What’s so funny?

Questions 14-20: TRUE/FALSE/NOT GIVEN

14. Arthur Koestler considered laughter biologically important in several ways

Keywords: Arthur Koestler, biologically, important

Paragraph 1 states that “The writer Arthur Koestler dubbed it the luxury reflex: „unique in that it serves no apparent biological purpose‟

+ biologically important >< no apparent biological purpose

=>ANSWER: FALSE

15. Plato believed humour to be a sign of above-average intelligence

Keywords: Plato,above-average, intelligence

In paragraph 2, the writer says that:” Plato expressed the idea that humour is simply a delighted feeling of superiority over others”. Thus, it is only a feeling of superiority, but the passage does not mention superiority in intelligence.

+ above-average = superiority over others

=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN

16. Kant believed that a successful joke involves the controlled release of nervous energy

Keywords: Kant, release, nervous energy

In paragraph 2, we find: “Kant and Freud felt that joke-telling relies on building up apsychic tension which is safely punctured by the ludicrousness of the punchline”.

+release = punctured

+ nervous energy = psychic tension

=>ANSWER: TRUE

17. Current thinking on humour has largely ignored Aristotle‟s view on the subject

Keywords: current, largely, ignored, Aristotle

At the end of paragraph 2, the writer says that: “But most modern humour theorists have settled on some version of Aristotle‟s belief that jokes are based on a reaction to or resolution of incongruity, when the punchline is either a nonsense or, though appearing silly, has a clever second meaning.”

+ current = modern

+ largely = most

+ ignored>< settle on: to consolidate, to follow the idea of Aristotle

+ view = belief

=>ANSWER: FALSE

Keywords: Graeme Ritchie, artificial, intelligence

In paragraph 3, the writer says that “Graeme Ritchie, a computational linguist in Edinburgh, studies the linguistic structure of jokes in order to understand not only humour but language understanding and reasoning in machines”, and “Viewed from this angle, humour is just a form of creative insight,a sudden leap to a new perspective”. Artificial intelligence: the intelligence of machines, computers which are created/programmed by humans.

+ Link to artificial intelligence = reasoning in machines

=>ANSWER: TRUE

19. Most comedians use personal situations as a source of humour.

Keywords: comedians, personal situations, source of humour

In paragraph 3, the writer reports that:” He says that while there is no single format for jokes, many revolve around a sudden and surprising conceptual shift. A comedian will present a situation followed by an unexpected interpretation that is also apt”. This means there are a lot of different ways to tell a joke, for example, using a sudden, surprising/unexpected situation. He does not mention if comedians use personal situations to create humour.

=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN

20. Chimpanzees make particular noises when they are playing.

Keywords: chimpanzees, noises, playing

Paragraph 5 indicates that: “Chimpanzees have a „play-face‟ – a gaping expression accompanied by a panting „ah,ah” noise. accompanied by: together with.

=>ANSWER: TRUE

Questions 21-23: Label the diagram. Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage.

21. Right prefrontal cortex lights up – area of brain linked to ……

Keywords: right prefrontal cortex, light up

In paragraph 8, the writer says that “His scans showed that at the beginning of a joke the listener’s prefrontal cortex lit up, particularly the right prefrontal believed to be critical for problem solving”

+ Light up = lit up (past simple tense)

=>ANSWER: problem solving

22. ….become active too

Keywords: active, too

In paragraph 8, the writer says that: “But there was also activity in the temporal lobes at the side of the head (consistent with attempts to rouse stored knowledge) and in many other brain areas.”

+ active = activity

+ too = also

=>ANSWER: temporal lobes

23. Orbital prefrontal cortex is activated – involved with …

Keywords: orbital prefrontal cortex, activated, involved

Paragraph 8 says that: “Then when the punchline arrived, a new area sprang to life – the orbital prefrontal cortex. This patch of brain tucked behind the orbits of the eyes is associated with evaluating information”

+ activated = sprang to life

+ involved with = associated with

=>ANSWER: evaluating information

Questions 24-27:

Complete each sentence with the correct ending A-G:

24. One of the brain’s most difficult tasks is to…..

Keywords; brain, most difficult task

In paragraph 9, the writer states that: “Making a rapid emotional assessment of the events of the moment is an extremely demanding job for the brain, animal or human” C. respond instantly to whatever is happening = making a rapid emotional assessment of the events of the moment.

+ difficult task = demanding job

=>ANSWER: C

25. Because of the language they have developed, humans…

Keywords: language, developed, humans

In paragraph 10, the writer states that: “All warm-blooded animals make constant tiny adjustments in arousal in response to external events, but humans, who have developed a much more complicated internal life as a result of language respond emotionally not only to their surroundings but to their own thoughts.” A. react to their own thoughts.

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+ react = respond

=>ANSWER: A

26. Individual responses to humour….

Keywords: individual, responses, humour

The last sentence of paragraph 10 states that: “Whether a joke gives pleasure or pain depends on a person‟s outlook”. This means that what a person feels about a joke depends on his personal ideas and beliefs, his own views.

F. relate to a person‟s subjective views

+ a person‟s subjective views = a person‟s outlook

=>ANSWER: F

27. Peter Derks believes that humour ….

Keywords: Peter Derks, believes, humour

The last sentence of paragraph 11 explains that: “If we can figure out how the mind processes humour, then we‟ll have a pretty good handle on how it works in general”. Peter Derks believes that if we know how the mind/brain processes humour, we can know how the brain works in general. D. may provide valuable information about the operation of the brain.

+ brain = mind

=>ANSWER: D

CAMBRIDGE IELTS 5 – TEST 2 – PASSAGE 2 KEYWORDS TABLE

Passage 3: The Birth of Scientific English

Questions 28-34: Complete the summary. Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage.

28. In Europe, modern science emerged at the same time as the nation state. At first, the scientific language of choice remained…

Keywords: modern science, at the same time, nation, at first, scientific language

At the end of paragraph 1, the writer says that: “Given the prominence of scientific English today, it may seem surprising that no one really knew how to write science in English before the 17th century. Before that, Latin was regarded as the lingua franca for European intellectuals”. Before the 17th century, the scientific language was Latin (lingua franca: a language which is used for communication between groups of people who speak different languages).

=>ANSWER: Latin

29. Sometimes the desire to protect ideas seems to have been stronger than the desire to communicate them, particularly in the case of mathematicians and..

Keywords: protect ideas, mathematicians

At the end of paragraph 6, the writer states that: “And in the mid-17th century it was common practice for mathematicians to keep their discoveries and proofs secret, by writing them in cipher, in obscure languages, or in private messages deposited in a sealed box with the Royal Society. Some scientists might have felt more comfortable with Latin precisely because its audience, though international, was socially restricted. Doctors clung the most keenly to Latin as an „insider language.”

+ protect ideas = keep their discoveries and proofs secret

Scientists were keen on Latin because its audience was socially restricted (i.e. not many people knew Latin). Doctors considered Latin as an “insider language‟ – the language only used among doctors, so that they could keep their discoveries and proofs secret.

=>ANSWER: doctors

Question 30 and 31:

30 – 31. In Britain, moreover, scientists worried that English had neither the …nor the …..to express their ideas.

Keywords: English, neither, nor, express the ideas

In paragraph 7, the writer argues that: “A third reason why the writing of original science in English was delayed may have been to do with the linguistic inadequacy of English in the early modern period.”

+ may have been to do with = may have related to

“English was not well equipped to deal with scientific argument. First, it lacked the necessary technical vocabulary. Second, it lacked the grammatical resources required to represent the world in an objective and impersonal way, and to discuss the relations, such as cause and effect, that might hold between complex and hypothetical entities”

+ the ideas = hypothetical entities

Linguistic inadequacy included the lack of necessary technical vocabulary and grammatical resources

=>ANSWER: technical vocabulary; grammatical resources

32. This situation only changed after 1660 when scientists associated with the …set about developing English. An early scientific journal fostered a new kind of writing based on short descriptions of specific experiments.

Keywords: after 1660, associated, developing English.

Paragraphs 8 and 9 refer to the years 1664 and 1665 and illustrate the cooperation between scientists and the Royal Society in developing English:”the society‟s members did a great deal to foster the publication of science in English and to encourage the development of a suitable writing style… many members of the Royal Society also published monographs in English”

+ associated with: members

=>ANSWER: Royal Society

33. Although English was then overtaken by…

Keywords: overtaken

In the last paragraph, the writer says that: “In the following century much of this momentum was lost as German established itself as the leading European language of science.”

+ overtaken: left behind = this momentum was lost

=>ANSWER: German

34. it developed again in the 19th century as a direct result of the …

Keywords: developed, 19th century, result

At the end of paragraph 10, the writer says that: “However, in the 19th century scientific English again enjoyed substantial lexical growth as the industrial revolution created the need for new technical vocabulary, and new, specialised, professional societies were instituted to promote and publish in the new disciplines.”

+ developed again = again enjoyedsubstantial lexical growth

+ as a direct result of = as the industrial revolution created

=>ANSWER: industrial revolution

Questions 35-37: TRUE/FALSE/NOT GIVEN

35. There was strong competition between scientists in Renaissance Europe.

Keywords: competition, scientists, Renaissance Europe

In paragraph 2, the writer says that ” The European Renaissance (c/14 -16 century) is sometimes called the „revival of learning‟, a time of renewed interest in the „lost knowledge‟ of classical times. At the same time, however, scholars also began to test and extend this knowledge. The emergent nation states of Europe developed competitive interests in world exploration and the development of trade.” We see that in the European Renaissance, scholars tested and developed the knowledge of classical times, and countries in Europe competed with one another in world exploitation and the development of trade. However, there is no information about competition between scientists in the passage.

=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN

36. The most important scientific development of the Renaissance period was the discovery of magnetism.

Keywords: most important, Renaissance, discovery of magnetism

At the end of paragraph 2, the writer says that: “Such expansion, which was to take the English language west to America and east to India, was supported by scientific developments such as the discovery of magnetism (and hence the invention of the compass), improvements in cartography and – perhaps the most important scientific revolution of them all – the new theories of astronomy and movement of the Earth in relation to the planets and stars”. The discovery of magnetism is one of many other inventions. And the most important scientific revolution of them all were the new theories of astronomy and movement of the earth in relation to the planet and stars developed by Copernicus.

=>ANSWER: FALSE

37. In 17th century Britain, leading thinkers combined their interest in science with an interest in how to express ideas.

Keywords: 17th century, interest, science, how to express ideas

In paragraph 8, the writer states that: “Fortunately, several members of the Royal Society possessed an interest in language and became engaged in various linguistic projects.” Then the writer gives some examples of leading thinkers who were interested in science and could express their ideas in writing style:

“Although a proposal in 1664 to establish a committee for improving the English language came to little, the society‟s members did a great deal to foster the publication of science in English and to encourage the development of a suitable writing style. Many members of the Royal Society also published monographs in English. One of the first was by Robert Hooke, the society‟s first curator of experiments, who described his experiments with microscopes in Micrographia (1665). This work is largely narrative in style, based on a transcript of oral demonstrations and lectures.”

+ leading thinkers = members of the Royal Society

+ interest in how to express ideas = interest in language, in various linguistic projects

+ express ideas = described his experiments

=>ANSWER: TRUE

Questions 38-40: Complete the table. Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage.

Keywords: type of science, English

Paragraph 5 indicates that: “There were several reasons why original science continued to be written in Latin. The first was simply a matter of audience. Latin was suitable for an international audience of scholars, whereas English reached a socially wider, but more local audience. Hence, popular science was written in English.”

39. Principia/mathematical treatise

Keywords: example, Latin

Paragraph 5 states that: “Original science was not done in English until the second half of the 17th century. For example, Newton published his mathematical treatise, known as the Principia, in Latin, but published his later work on the properties of light – Opticks – in English”.

40. more local/local audience

Keywords: target audience, but socially wider

Paragraph 5 states that: “There were several reasons why original science continued to be written in Latin. The first was simply a matter of audience. Latin was suitable for an international audience of scholars, Whereas English reached a socially wider, but more local audience.”

CAMBRIDGE IELTS 5 – TEST 2 – PASSAGE 3 KEYWORDS TABLE

cambridge ielts 5 reading test 2 passage 3
cambridge ielts 5 reading test 2 passage 3

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