IELTS VOCABULARY

Boost your vocabulary cam12 v28092017

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Boost your vocabulary cam12 v28092017
Vocabulary Lesson Plan
Boost your vocabulary 12

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LỜI GIỚI THIỆU

Chào các bạn,

Các bạn đang cầm trên tay cuốn “Boost your vocabulary” được biên soạn bởi mình và bạn Dương

Nguyễn. Cuốn sách được viết nhằm mục đích giúp các bạn đang muốn cải thiện vốn từ vựng cho

phần thi Reading trong IELTS. Sách được viết dựa trên nền tảng bộ Cambridge IELTS của Nhà xuất

bản Đại học Cambridge – Anh Quốc.

Từ lúc mình lên ý tưởng cho cuốn sách này đến khi cùng bạn Dương Nguyễn bắt đầu thực hiện, mình

đã mất tương đối nhiều thời gian để nghiên cứu cách thức đưa nội dung sao cho khoa học và dễ dùng

nhất với các bạn đọc. Tuy vậy, cuốn sách không khỏi có những hạn chế nhất định. Mọi góp ý để cải

thiện nội dung cuốn sách mọi người xin gửi về email thangwrm@gmail

Trân trọng cảm ơn,

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03 LÝ DO TẠI SAO NÊN HỌC TỪ VỰNG

THEO CUỐN SÁCH NÀY

1. Không còn mất nhiều thời gian cho việc tra từ

Các từ học thuật (academic words) trong sách đều có kèm giải thích hoặc từ đồng nghĩa.

Bạn tiết kiệm được đáng kể thời gian gõ từng từ vào từ điển và tra. Chắc chắn những bạn

thuộc dạng “không được chăm chỉ lắm trong việc tra từ vựng” sẽ thích điều này.

2. Tập trung bộ nhớ vào các từ quan trọng

Mặc dù cuốn sách không tra hết các từ giúp bạn nhưng sách đã chọn ra các từ quan trọng và

phổ biến nhất giúp bạn. Như vậy, bạn có thể tập trung bộ nhớ vào các từ này, thay vì phải

mất công nhớ các từ không quan trọng. Bạn nào đạt Reading từ 7 trở lên đều sẽ thấy rất

nhiều trong số các từ này thuộc loại hết sức quen thuộc

3. Học một từ nhớ nhiều từ

Rất nhiều từ được trình bày theo synonym (từ đồng nghĩa), giúp các bạn có thể xem lại và

học thêm các từ có nghĩa tương đương hoặc giống như từ gốc. Có thể nói, đây là phương

pháp học hết sức hiệu quả vì khi học một từ như impact, bạn có thể nhớ lại hoặc học thêm

một loạt các từ nghĩa tương đương như significant, vital, imperative, chief, key. Nói theo

cách khác thì nếu khả năng ghi nhớ của bạn tốt thì cuốn sách này giúp bạn đấy số lượng từ

vựng lên một cách đáng kể.

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HƯỚNG DẪN SỬ DỤNG SÁCH

ĐỐI TƯỢNG SỬ DỤNG SÁCH

Nhìn chung các bạn cần có mức độ từ vựng tương đương 5 trở lên (theo thang điểm 9 của

IELTS), nếu không có thể sẽ gặp nhiều khó khăn trong việc sử dụng sách này.

CÁC BƯỚC SỬ DỤNG

Bước 1: Bạn in cuốn sách này ra. Nên in bìa màu để có thêm động lực học. Cuốn sách

được thiết kế cho việc đọc trực tiếp, không phải cho việc đọc online nên bạn nào đọc online

sẽ có thể thấy khá bất tiện khi tra cứu, đối chiếu từ vựng

Bước 2: Tìm mua cuốn Cambridge IELTS (6 cuốn mới nhất từ 6-12) của Nhà xuất bản

Cambridge để làm. Hãy cẩn thận đừng mua nhầm sách lậu. Sách của nhà xuất bản

Cambridge được tái bản tại Việt Nam thường có bìa và giấy dày, chữ rất rõ nét.

Bước 3: Làm một bài test hoặc passage bất kỳ trong bộ sách trên. Ví dụ passage

1, test 1 của Cambridge IELTS 12.

Bước 4: Đối chiếu với cuốn sách này , bạn sẽ lọc ra các từ vựng quan trọng cần học.

Ví dụ passage 1, test 1 của Cambridge IELTS 12, bài về CORK: Bạn sẽ thấy

4 Cột bên trái là bản text gốc, trong đó gạch chân các từ vựng học thuật CƠ BẢN trong list

570 academic word mà nhiều bạn chắc đã từng nghe nói đến.

4 Cột bên phải chứa các từ vựng học thuật (academic words) theo kèm định nghĩa

(definition) hoặc từ đồng nghĩa (synonym)

Trong đó các từ đóng vai trò quan trọng trong việc giúp người đọc hiểu nội dung của text (important

words) được giải thích. Các từ này có thể nằm trong hoặc không nằm trong list 570 từ phía trên.

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Test 1

READING PASSAGE 1

Cork

Cork – the thick bark of the cork oak tree (Quercus suber) – is a remarkable material. It is tough , elastic , buoyant , and fire-resistant , and suitable for a wide range of purposes. It has also been used for millennia: the ancient Egyptians sealed then sarcophagi (stone coffins) with cork, while the ancient Greeks and Romans used it for anything from beehives to sandals.

And the cork oak itself is an extraordinary tree. Its bark grows up to 20 cm in thickness, insulating the tree like a coat wrapped around the trunk and branches and keeping the inside at a constant 20°C all year round. Developed most probably as a defence against forest fires, the bark of the cork oak has a particular cellular structure – with about 40 million cells per cubic centimetre – that technology has never succeeded in replicating. The cells are filled with air, which is why cork is so buoyant. It also has an elasticity that means you can squash it and watch it spring back to its original size and shape when you release the pressure.

Cork oaks grow in a number of Mediterranean countries, including Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece and Morocco. They flourish in warm, sunny climates where there is a minimum of 400 millimetres of rain per year, and no more than 800 millimetres. Like grape vines, the trees thrive in poor soil , putting down deep root in search of moisture and nutrients. Southern Portugal’s Alentejo region meets all of these requirements, which explains why, by the early 20th century, this region had become the world’s largest producer of cork, and why today it accounts for roughly half of all cork production around the world.

Most cork forests are family-owned. Many of these family businesses, and indeed many of the trees

Remarkable =extraordinary, outstanding, significant, incredible…

Tough = strong.

Elastic = stretchy, flexible…

Buoyant = able to float.

Fire-resistant = unaffected by fire.

Extraordinary =remarkable, outstanding, significant, incredible…

Insulate = to cover or protect something with a material that stops electricity, sound, heat etc from getting in or out

Particular = unique.

Replicate = duplicate, copy…

Pressure = stress.

Flourish = grow, thrive…

Thrive = flourish…

Soil = the top layer of the earth in which plants grow.

Moisture =wetness, dampness…

Nutrient = a chemical or food that provides what is needed for plants or animals to live and grow

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themselves, are around 200 years old. Cork production is, above all, an exercise in patience. From the planting of a cork sapling to the first harvest takes 25 years, and a gap of approximately a decade must separate harvests from an individual tree. And for top- quality cork, it’s necessary to wait a further 15 or 20 years. You even have to wait for the right kind of summer’s day to harvest cork. If the bark is stripped on a day when it’s too cold – or when the air is damp – the tree will be damaged.

Cork harvesting is a very specialised profession. No mechanical means of stripping cork bark has been invented, so the job is done by teams of highly skilled workers. First, they make vertical cuts down the bark using small sharp axes, then lever it away in pieces as large as they can manage. The most skilful cork- strippers prise away a semi-circular husk that runs the length of the trunk from just above ground level to the first branches. It is then dried on the ground for about four months, before being taken to factories, where it is boiled to kill any insects that might remain in the cork. Over 60% of cork then goes on to be made into traditional bottle stoppers, with most of the remainder being used in the construction trade, Corkboard and cork tiles are ideal for thermal and acoustic insulation, while granules of cork are used in the manufacture of concrete.

Recent years have seen the end of the virtual monopoly of cork as the material for bottle stoppers, due to concerns about the effect it may have on the contents of the bottle. This is caused by a chemical compound called 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA), which forms through the interaction of plant phenols, chlorine and mould. The tiniest concentrations – as little as three or four parts to a trillion – can spoil the taste of the product contained in the bottle. The result has been a gradual yet steady move first towards plastic stoppers and, more recently, to aluminium screw caps. These substitutes are cheaper to manufacture and, in the case of screw caps, more convenient for the user.

The classic cork stopper does have several advantages, however. Firstly, its traditional image is more in keeping with that of the type of high quality goods with which it has long been associated. Secondly – and very importantly – cork is a sustainable product that can be recycled without difficulty. Moreover, cork forests are a resource which

Patience = the ability to continue waiting or doing something for a long time without becoming angry or anxious.

Strip = to remove something that is covering the surface of something else

Specialised = trained, designed, or developed for a particular purpose, type of work, place etc

Mechanical = motorized.

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Boil = to wash something, using boiling water.

Thermal = relating to or caused by heat

Acoustic = relating to sound and the way people hear things

Manufacture = production.

Monopoly = if a company or government has a monopoly of a business or political activity, it has complete control of it so that other organizations cannot compete with it

Spoil = ruin, destroy…

Substitute = something new or different that can be used instead of something else.

Sustainable = able to continue without causing damage to the environment.

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them into contact with like-minded people.

Another motive for collecting is the desire to find something special, or a particular example of the collected item, such as a rare early recording by a particular singer. Some may spend their whole lives in a hunt for this. Psychologically, this can give a purpose to a life that otherwise feels aimless. There is a danger, though, that if the individual is ever lucky enough to find what they’re looking for, rather than celebrating their success, they may feel empty , now that the goal that drove them on has gone.

If you think about collecting postage stamps another potential reason for it – Or, perhaps, a result of collecting is its educational value. Stamp collecting opens a window to other countries, and to the plants, animals, or famous people shown on their stamps. Similarly, in the 19th century, many collectors amassed fossils , animals and plants from around the globe, and their collections provided a vast amount of information about the natural world. Without those collections, our understanding would be greatly inferior to what it is.

In the past – and nowadays, too, though to a lesser extent – a popular form of collecting, particularly among boys and men, was trainspotting. This might involve trying to see every locomotive of a particular type, using published data that identifies each one, and ticking off each engine as it is seen. Trainspotters exchange information, these days often by mobile phone, so they can work out where to go to, to see a particular engine. As a by-product, many practitioners of the hobby become very knowledgeable about railway operations , or the technical specifications of different engine types.

Similarly, people who collect dolls may go beyond simply enlarging their collection, and develop an interest in the way that dolls are made, or the materials that are used. These have changed over the centuries from the wood that was standard in 16th century Europe, through the wax and porcelain of later centuries, to the plastics of today’s dolls. Or collectors might be inspired to study how dolls reflect notions of what children like, or ought to like.

Not all collectors are interested in learning from their

Desire = wish, need, want.

Aimless = meaningless…

Empty =meaningless, purposeless.

Fossil = an animal or plant that lived many thousands of years ago and that has been preserved, or the shape of one of these animals or plants that has been preserved in rock.

Inferior =poorer, lower.

Publish = announce, make public.

Identify = recognize, distinguish, detect.

Knowledgeable = well-informed, experienced, educated.

Railway = a system of tracks along which trains run, or a system of trains.

Operation = process, procedure.

Doll = a child’s toy that looks like a small person or baby.

Enlarge = increase, expand, extend…

Standard = norm, average…

Wax = a solid substance made of fat or oil and used to make candles, polish etc

Porcelain = a hard shiny white substance that is used for making expensive plates, cups etc.

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hobby, though, so what we might call a psychological reason for collecting is the need for a sense of control, perhaps as a way of dealing with insecurity. Stamp collectors, for instance, arrange their stamps in albums, usually very neatly , organising their collection according to certain commonplace principles-perhaps by country in alphabetical order, or grouping stamps by what they depict -people, birds, maps, and so on.

One reason, conscious or not, for what someone chooses to collect is to show the collector’s individualism. Someone who decides to collect something as unexpected as dog collars, for instance, may be conveying their belief that they must be interesting themselves. And believe it or not, there is at least one dog collar museum in existence , and it grew out of a personal collection.

Of course, all hobbies give pleasure , but the common factor in collecting is usually passion : pleasure is putting it far too mildly. More than most other hobbies, collecting can be totally engrossing , and can give a strong sense of personal fulfillment. To non-collectors it may appear an eccentric , if harmless, way of spending time, but potentially, collecting has a lot going for it.

Neatly = tidily, carefully.

Conscious = intentional, deliberate.

Individualism = the belief that the rights and freedom of individual people are the most important rights in a society.

Existence = Reality.

Mildly = slightly, a little…

Passion = a very strong liking for something.

Engross = hold your attention.

Fulfillment = satisfaction.

Eccentric = unusual, strange, weird…

READING PASSAGE 3

What’s the purpose of gaining

knowledge?

A

‘I would found an institution where any person can find instruction in any subject’ That was the founders motto for Cornell University, and it seems an apt characterization of the different university, also in the USA, where I currently teach philosophy. A student can prepare for a career in resort management, engineering, interior design, accounting, music, law enforcement, you name it. But what would the

Institution = a large organization that has a particular kind of work or purpose.

Motto = Slogan, saying…

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E

Let us apply both the terms ‘means’ and ‘end’ to marketing. The students have signed up for a course in order to learn how to market effectively. But to what end? There seem to be two main attitudes toward that question. One is that the answer is obvious: the purpose of marketing is to sell things and to make money. The other attitude is that the purpose of marketing is irrelevant : Each person comes to the program and course with his or her own plans, and these need not even concern the acquisition of marketing expertise as such. My proposal , which I believe would also be Kant’s, is that neither of these attitudes captures the significance of the end to the means for marketing. A field of knowledge or a professional endeavor is defined by both the means and the end;hence both deserve scrutiny. Students need to study both how to achieve X, and also what X is.

F It is at this point that ‘Arson for Profit’ becomes supremely relevant. That course is presumably all about means: how to detect and prosecute criminal activity. It is therefore assumed that the end is good in an ethical sense. When I ask fire science students to articulate the end, or purpose, of their field, they eventually generalize to something like, ‘The safety and welfare of society,’ which seems right. As we have seen, someone could use the very same knowledge of means to achieve a much less noble end, such as personal profit via destructive, dangerous, reckless activity. But we would not call that firefighting. We have a separate word for it: arson. Similarly, if you employed the ‘principles of marketing’ in an unprincipled way, you would not be doing marketing. We have another term for it: fraud. Kant gives the example of a doctor and a poisoner, who use the identical knowledge to achieve their divergent ends. We would say that one is practicing medicine, the other, murder.

Sign up = join, enroll…

Irrelevant = unrelated, inappropriate…

Expertise = knowledge, proficiency…

Proposal = suggestion.

Endeavor = effort, try…

Scrutiny = careful and thorough examination of someone or something.

Supremely = extremely, completely, totally….

Presumably = seemingly, apparently…

Prosecute = accuse= to charge someone with a crime and try to show that they are guilty of it in a court of law.

Generalize = simplify, take a broad view…

Articulate = speak about.

Reckless = not caring or worrying about the possible bad or dangerous results of your actions.

Fraud = the crime of deceiving people in order to gain something such as money or goods.

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Test 2

READING PASSAGE 1

The risks agriculture faces in

developing countries

Synthesis of an online debate A Two things distinguish food production from all other productive activities: first, every single person needs food each day and has a right to it; and second, it is hugely dependent on nature. These two unique aspects, one political, the other natural, make food production highly vulnerable and different from any other business. At the same time, cultural values are highly entrenched in food and agricultural systems worldwide.

B Farmers everywhere face major risks; including extreme weather, long-term climate change, and price volatility in input and product markets. However, smallholder farmers in developing countries must in addition deal with adverse environments, both natural, in terms of soil quality, rainfall, etc. and human, in terms of infrastructure , financial systems, markets, knowledge and technology. Counter-intuitively, hunger is prevalent among many smallholder farmers in the developing world.

C Participants in the online debate argued that our biggest challenge is to address the underlying causes of the agricultural system’s inability to ensure sufficient food for all, and they identified as drivers of this problem our dependency on fossil fuels and unsupportive government policies.

D On the question of mitigating the risks farmers face, most essayists called for greater state intervention. In his essay, Kanayo F. Nwanze, President of the International Fund for Agricultural Development, argued that governments can significantly reduce

Synthesis = mixture, combination…

Distinguish = differentiate…

Dependent = reliant.

Vulnerable = a place, thing, or idea that is vulnerable is easy to attack or criticize.

Entrench = Establish.

Volatility = unpredictability. Instability.

Adverse = unfavorable, poor, bad…

Infrastructure = the basic systems and structures that a country or organization needs in order to work properly, for example roads, railways, banks etc.

Prevalent =common.

Participant = member, partaker…

Address = tackle, deal with…

Inability = powerlessness, failure, lack of ability…

Indentify = detect, discover, find, recognize…

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Unsupportive = not ready to give a hand, uncooperative…

Mitigate = lessen, reduce, alleviate…

Intervention = involvement.

Fund = sponsor, subsidise, back

Significantly = much, a lot…

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G

Many essayists mentioned climate change and its consequences for small-scale agriculture. Fan explained that in addition to reducing crop yields, climate change increases the magnitude and the frequency of extreme weather events, which increase smallholder vulnerability. The growing unpredictability of weather patterns increases farmers’ difficulty in managing weather-related risks. According to this author, one solution would be to develop crop varieties that are more resilient to new climate trends and extreme weather patterns. Accordingly, Pat Mooney, co-founder and executive director of the ETC Group, suggested that ‘if we are to survive climate change, we must adopt policies that let peasants diversify the plant and animal species and varieties/breeds that make up our menus.

H Some participating authors and commentators argued in favour of community- based and autonomous risk management strategies through collective action groups, co-operatives or producers’ groups. Such groups enhance market opportunities for small-scale producers, reduce marketing costs and synchronise buying and selling with seasonal price conditions. According to Murphy, ‘collective action offers an important way for farmers to strengthen their political and economic bargaining power, and to reduce their business risks. One commentator, Giel Ton, warned that collective action does not come as a free good. It takes time, effort and money to organise, build trust and to experiment. Others, like Marcel Vernooij and Marcel Beukeboom, suggested that in order to ‘apply what we already know’, all stakeholders, including business, government, scientists and civil society, must work together, starting at the beginning of the value chain.

I Some participants explained that market price volatility is often worsened by the presence of intermediary purchasers who, taking advantage of farmers’ vulnerability, dictate prices. One commentator suggested farmers can gain greater control over prices and minimise price volatility by selling directly to consumers. Similarly, Sonali Bisht, founder and advisor to the Institute of Himalayan Environmental Research and Education (INHERE), India, wrote that copipunity-

Consequence = outcome, result, effect…

Magnitude = scale, size…

Frequency = rate, regularity, occurrence

Solution = key, answer, resolution

Resilient = strong.

Executive = senior manager, decision-maker…

Peasant = a poor farmer. Diversify = expand, spread,

Strategy = plan.

Enhance = improve, boost…

Synchronise = to happen at exactly the same time, or to arrange for two or more actions to happen at exactly the same time.

Bargaining = dealing.

Dictate = to control or influence something.

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supported agriculture, where consumers invest in local farmers by subscription and guarantee producers a fair price, is a risk-sharing model worth more attention. Direct food distribution systems not only encourage small-scale agriculture but also give consumers more control over the food they consume , she wrote.

READING PASSAGE 2

The Lost City

An explorer’s encounter with the ruined city of Machu Picchu, the most famous icon of the Inca civilization

A When the US explorer and academic Hiram Bingham arrived in South America in 1911, he was ready for what was to be the greatest achievement of his life: the exploration of the remote hinterland to the west of Cusco, the old capital of the Inca empire in the Andes mountains of Peru. His goal was to locate the remains of a city called Vitcos, the last capital of the Inca civilisation. Cusco lies on a high plateau at an elevation of more than 3,000 metres, and Bingham’s plan was to descend from this plateau along the valley of the Urubamba river, which takes a circuitous route down to the Amazon and passes through an area of dramatic canyons and mountain ranges.

B When Bingham and his team set off down the Urubamba in late July, they had an advantage over travellers who had preceded them: a track had recently been blasted down the valley canyon to enable rubber to be brought up by mules from the jungle. Almost all previous travellers had left the river at Ollantaytambo and taken a high pass across the mountains to rejoin the river lower down, thereby cutting a substantial corner, but also therefore never passing through the area around Machu Picchu.

C On 24 July they were a few days into their descent of the valley. The day began slowly, with Bingham trying to arrange sufficient mules for the next stage of the trek. His companions showed no interest in accompanying him up the nearby hill to see some

Subscription = an amount of money you pay regularly to be a member of an organization or to help its work, or the act of paying money for this.

Distribution = allocation, spreading…

Consume = eat, use…

Ruin = damage, destroy, devastate…

Civilization = society.

Exploration = discovery.

Remote = far-off, distant…

Empire = a group of countries that are all controlled by one ruler or government.

Plateau = a large area of flat land that is higher than the land around it.

Elevation = height, distance from the ground…

Descend = go down, move down…

Canyon = a deep valley with very steep sides of rock that usually has a river running through it.

Set off = get going, start out…

Precede = to go somewhere before someone else.

Valley canyon = a deep valley with very steep sides of rock that usually has a river running through it.

Bring up = raise, care, look after…

Substantial = significant, important… Trek = hike, walk…

Companion = friend, buddy…

Accompany = go with, come with…

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G One question that has perplexed visitors, historians and archaeologists alike ever since Bingham, is why the site seems to have been abandoned before the Spanish Conquest. There are no references to it by any of the Spanish chroniclers – and if they had known of its existence so close to Cusco they would certainly have come in search of gold. An idea which has gained wide acceptance over the past few years is that Machu Picchu was a moya, a country estate built by an Inca emperor to escape the cold winters of Cusco, where the elite could enjoy monumental architecture and spectacular views. Furthermore, the particular architecture of Machu Picchu suggests that it was constructed at the time of the greatest of all the Incas, the emperor Pachacuti (1438-71). By custom, Pachacuti’s descendants built other similar estates for their own use, and so Machu Picchu would have been abandoned after his death, some 50 years before the Spanish Conquest.

Perplex = confuse.

Archaeologist = the person studying about ancient societies by examining what remains of their buildings, graves, tools etc.

Abandon = leave behind.

Conquest = take-over, invasion, control…

Emperor = ruler, royal leader…

Elite = a group of people who have a lot of power and influence because they have money, knowledge, or special skills.

Monumental = historic, classic…

Spectacula r= stunning, fantastic, impressive

READING PASSAGE 3

The Benefits of Being

Bilingual

A

According to the latest figures, the majority of the world’s population is now bilingual or multilingual , having grown up speaking two or more languages. In the past, such children were considered to be at a disadvantage compared with their monolingual peers. Over the past few decades, however, technological advances have allowed researchers to look more deeply at how bilingualism interacts with and changes the cognitive and neurological systems, thereby identifying several clear benefits of being bilingual.

Bilingual = able to speak two languages equally well.

Multilingual = using, speaking, or written in several different languages.

Monolingual = speaking or using only one language.

Peers = the people who are the same age as you, or who have the same type of job, social class etc.

Cognitive = related to the process of knowing, understanding, and learning something.

Neurological = the scientific study of the nervous system and its diseases.

Identify = recognize, discover, find, detect…

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B

Research shows that when a bilingual person uses one language, the other is active at the same time. When we hear a word, we don’t hear the entire word all at once: the sounds arrive in sequential order. Long before the word is finished, the brain’s language system begins to guess what that word might be. If you hear ‘can’, you will likely activate words like ‘candy’ and ‘candle’ as well, at least during the earlier stages of word recognition. For bilingual people, this activation is not limited to a single language; auditory input activates corresponding words regardless of the language to which they belong. Some of the most compelling evidence for this phenomenon , called ‘language co-activation’, comes from studying eye movements. A Russian-English bilingual asked to ‘pick up a marker’ from a set of objects would look more at a stamp than someone who doesn’t know Russian, because the Russian word for ‘stamp’, marka, sounds like the English word he or she heard, ‘marker’. In cases like this, language co-activation occurs because what the listener hears could map onto words in either language.

C Having to deal with this persistent linguistic competition can result in difficulties, however. For instance, knowing more than one language can cause speakers to name pictures more slowly, and can increase ‘tip-of-t he-tongue states’, when you can almost, but not quite, bring a word to mind. As a result, the constant juggling of two languages creates a need to control how much a person accesses a language at any given time. For this reason, bilingual people often perform better on tasks that require conflict management. In the classic Stroop Task, people see a word and are asked to name the colour of the word’s font. When the colour and the word match (i., the word ‘red’ printed in red), people correctly name the colour more quickly than when the colour and the word don’t match (i., the word ‘red’ printed in blue). This occurs because the word itself (‘red’) and its font colour (blue) conflict. Bilingual people often excel at tasks such as this, which tap into the ability to ignore competing perceptual information and focus on the relevant aspects of the input. Bilinguals are also better at switching between two tasks; for example, when bilinguals have to switch from categorizing objects by colour (red or green) to categorizing them by shape (circle or triangle), they do so more quickly than

Sequential = happening in a fixed order, where a series of related actions, events etc lead to a particular result.

Activate = make active.

Corresponding = matching, equivalent, related…

Compelling = persuasive, convincing, undeniable…

Phenomenon = something that happens or exists in society, science, or nature, especially something that is studied because it is difficult to understand.

Deal with = cope with, handle…

Persistent = lasting, remaining…

Juggle = if you juggle two jobs or activities, you try to fit them both into your life.

Access = get into, approach…

Conflict = differ.

Excel = do extremely well.

Competing = opposing.

Switch = change.

Watch more: ISBN 13: 9781904663911

Nguồn: https://cinemaboxhd.org
Danh mục: IELTS VOCABULARY

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